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(Turkey’s Violations against the International Law in Iraq)A Report by the Egyptian Alliance for Development and Human Rights

Sunday, 10th January 2021

“Turkey’s Violations against the International Law in Iraq”

A Report by the Egyptian Alliance for Development and Human Rights

On Sunday, 10th January 2021, the research and studies unit at the Egyptian Alliance for Development and Human Rights issued a report entitled “Turkey’s Violations against the International Law in Iraq”. The report sheds light on Turkey’s continuous violations leaded by the Turkish president Rageb Tayeb Erdoghan against Arab countries, in addition to Turkish campaigns and armed attack against Iraq. Also Turkey has built military bases to be part of Turkey’s strategy to expand militarily beyond its borders.

The report emphasizes that according to the UN charters, the interventions by Turkish forces and violating the sovereignty of Iraqi lands represent a violation against these charters, as Turkey’s existence in Iraq is not limited to fighting the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, yet it expanded to reach the existence of Turkey on Iraqi lands and building military bases there. Besides, the Turkish military forces have numerously penetrated against the Kurdistan Workers’ Party despite the peace agreement in 2013.  

The report discusses a number of axes the important of which are:

Some military operations launched by Turkey against Iraq: the report mentions that the conflict in Iraq began since the signing of 1995 agreement which was concluded by the Iraqi president Saddam Hussien as this agreement allows the Turkish forces to exist in bases in North of Iraq to fight the separatist the Kurdistan Workers’ Party and to build Turkish military bases and prepare planes with weapons to fight against fighters in their strongholds in mountains. These bases are in Bamarni, north Dohuk in Dohuk governorate in Kurdistan Region. Also Turkey has three more small bases.

Makhlab Al Nisr Operation 14/6/2020: it was launched by Turkey in North Iraq to pursue the Kurdistan Workers’ Party as it launched an attack with air strikes against Kurdish targets.  

Makhlab Al Nimr 17/6/2020: it was launched by Turkey in Haftanein Region North Iraq against the Kurdistan Workers’ Party and its supporters.

Kandel Mountains represent a complex for Erdoghan army: Erdoghan gambles upon besieging Kandel Mountains and achieving his dream in damaging these mountains and guarantee staying in power. Kandel Mountains represent a complex for Erdoghan and his forces and justify Turkish attacks against Kurds and Iraq.

Turkish shelling in North Iraq 25/6/2020: Turkish airplanes shelled targets and sites of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party in North Iraq.

Kandel Mountains and Singar clashes 27/6/2020: these were clashes between Turkish forces and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party which came within Makhlab Al Nimr operation which was launched by Turkey in North of Iraq. These raids targeted the sites of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party in Kandel Mountains and Singar in addition to Haftanin on borders.  

Dayrlok and Sheladzay Raids 3/7/2020: the Turkish military forces attacked the mountains surrounding Dayrlok and Sheladzay towns in Dakouk in North Iraq.

Targeting the car of Iraqi Border Guards 11/8/2020: A Turkish airplane targeted a car of Iraqi Border Guards.

Yaldream Jahanm Al Saudaa Operation 19/8/2020: the operation which was launched by Turkey against the Iraqi Kurdistan Workers’ Party in Bengol in the east of Iraq.  

The Kurdistan Workers’ Party Resistance against Turkish Army 6/9/2020: responding the regular attacks against the Kurdistan Workers’ Party in Kurdistan region in North Iraq, the fighters of the party attacked a Turkish base. The military operation launched by Turkey in North Iraq has resulted in confrontations with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party since June 2019 and great harms on both human and material sides.

Al Saaqa Operation 1315/10/2020: this operation was launched by Turkey to eliminate armed members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party in the southern east of Iraq.   

The Economic Crisis in Turkey while Erdoghan is busy with wars in neighboring countries instead of paying attention to his country’s economies: the report draws attention to that the expenses of Turkish army has notably increased recently because of military operations outside Turkey within fears of an expected crisis or its impacts on Turkish economies which are already passing by an economic crisis due to the decline of Turkish Lira. US Bloomberg Agency has revealed that the budget of the Turkish Army reached 2.5% of the local production of the country in 2018 comparing to 1.5% in 2015. This increase was because of costs and expenses of the army in equipping and supporting Turkish forces at the time when the Turkish economy is weak and the decline of Turkish Lira and its impact on the country. 

Turkey’s goals behind its continuous interventions in Sovereignty of Iraqi Lands: in regard to Turkey’s goals behind its continuous interventions in sovereignty of Iraqi Lands, the report mentions the main reasons, the most prominent of which are destroying the bases or the military structure of Kurds, strengthening the Turkish power in North Iraq which is reflected by the continuous military operations in North Iraq, establishing four fixed military bases and preventing the achievement of goals and establishment of Kurdish State. 

The Situation of Iraqi Government towards violating its lands sovereignty by Turkey: the report reveals that the Iraqi Ministry of Exterior has denounced the military operations launched by Turkish military forces against Iraqi lands and violating its sovereignty. The ministry also assured that Turkey should necessarily commit to the Peace Treaty, not to violate the international charters, commit to stop shelling, withdraw Turkish military forces from Iraqi lands. In addition, the Iraqi Ministry of Exterior called the Turkish Ambassador in Iraq more than one time because of these violations and wars against Iraq and submitted protest memorandum and called the Turkey to withdraw its forces from Iraq.   

The International Situation towards Turkey’s Violations against Iraqi Lands: the report clarifies that neighboring and European Union countries agreed on taking a unified situation against the Turkey because of its interventions in the internal affairs of some countries such as what happened in Iraq, Libya and Syria in addition to violating sovereignty of lands. In France, the president Macron declared that Turkey’s interventions in internal affairs of countries is a violation against the international charters and called for the necessity of respecting ban the use of weapons. In Greece, the Prime Minister Mitsotakis said that Turkey’s movements threaten security in the region and violate the international law and that resorting to international courts would be one of the taken steps against Turkey. Also the Syrian Minister of Exterior said that Turkey is one of the main sponsors for terrorism in his country and in the region, and accused the Turkish government of committing crimes against humanity. In addition, there are other countries which condemned Turkey’s interventions in internal affairs of countries such as India and Cyrus calling for applying the international law.    

The report concludes some recommendations the most important of which are:

The conflict parties should commit to the rules of the International Humanitarian Law and issue instructions by the conflict parties to ban targeting civilians or civil targets.

Take all necessary measures to protect civilians against the dangers resulted by the military operations. 

Punishing those who responsible for war violations and violating international charters and laws.

The UN should form an independent committee to investigate the violations and penetrations by the Turkish military forces.

Stop interventions in the internal affairs of Iraq directly or indirectly for any reason, and the necessity of stopping military attacks against Iraq.

Turkey should withdraw from Iraqi lands and stop aggression against Iraqis and assure that this aggression is not accepted to the sovereignty of member states of the Arab League.

Think of taking immediate measures by the Iraqi government and Arab league to face the violations committed by Turkey among these measures are reviewing the economic cultural relations with Turkey, stop military cooperation and ‘minimize’ the diplomatic relations.

Call the International Security Council to withdraw from Iraq and stop Turkish attacks in addition to urging the members of the International Society to take steps within this context.  

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