Saturday, September 26, 2020
The Electoral Observatory of the Egyptian Coalition for Human Rights and Development and the Forum for development and Human Rights Dialogue on Saturday issued a study entitled “The General Climate of the 2020 House of Representatives Elections”
The study dealt with several topics to learn about the general climate of the elections to the House of Representatives, the most important of which are:
# The political environment of the election
According to the study, the political environment in Egypt is formed by al-Qaeda, which passes above the base to the center and above, and ends with the summit as follows:
• Al-Qaeda, which includes citizens from all poor communities and provinces.
• The middle class of Egyptian society, which, in some of its characteristics, is associated with the general ordinary class, and clings at its peak to interest groups that use the general class of society to promote their materials and products,
• The above-middle class: We find interest groups with political parties, movements, civil society institutions, trade unions, unions, coalitions, etc., which is the balance that, if moderated, continues the triangle sides, even if the sides of the political triangle are cut off.
• Layer at the bottom of the summit: the executive branch and the government is represented in all its institutions, ministries, bodies, business companies, public business, etc.
• Central to the summit: the legislature and the judiciary as the monitors and accountability of the Government.
• Head of State: The President of the Republic is the Head of State and the Head of Executive Branch, who takes care of the interests of the people and preserves the independence, territorial integrity and integrity of the nation, abides by the provisions of the Constitution and proceeds with its terms of reference as outlined in it.
# Political pluralism in Egypt
The study drew attention to the fact that the start of the elections of the House of Representatives in Egypt raises many issues related to political and party life, political participation, competition, and the roles required of existing community institutions, especially since the electoral system gives a broad opportunity for parties to appear and perform their multiple roles to reach their primary goal of reaching power, by submitting candidates either on individual seats or forming a list, following the standards and requirements of the law. The parties are the main party in the political process through their members, candidates who express the party’s objectives, embrace and promote the principles adopted and promoted among the masses of citizens, and their success in creating a healthy competitive environment that supports Egypt’s general framework for political development.
Before the January revolution, the existing parties did not play their required political role as a national opposition, with vision and alternatives in the face of the ruling party at the time, as much as they were dominated by internal differences and personal interests that made them only paper entities whose influence, if any, exceeded the limits of their headquarters.
The study found that following the January revolution there were a series of facilitated amendments to the establishment of the party law, currently numbering more than 108 parties, of which only 20 parties are represented in the 2015 parliament, led by a large party, while the rest of the seats are distributed in different proportions to the rest of the parties with less representation and influence.
The study also stated that there is a lack of political knowledge among a large segment of Egyptian citizens of political parties, despite their large number – starting with the knowledge of their names and leaders as well as the roles of these real parties within the framework of a political system based on multiparty, as well as a state of loss of confidence in these party entities and considering them merely formal entities that do not have real popular support bases in the political street.
The study also drew attention to the fact that the lack of political vision and intellectual reference of many political parties caused the disappearance of many of the parties established during the past period.
Among Egypt’s 108 recognized political parties, more than 50 political parties have completely disappeared from the political scene. There are only pages left on the networking sites or a struggle to eliminate the party presidency.
The study concluded by saying that there was the experience of the emergence of a large number of parties after the January 25th revolution, including many non-active parties that did not prove any presence in the street.